Earth Sciences, or Geosciences, is a global science which examines the Earth, it’s origin and it’s physical, chemical, and structural composition. The major sub disciplines are geology,meteorology,geochemistry,geophysics. These sub disciplines are further divided into other other branches. Geology, for example, includes the study of structural geology, mineralogy,historical geology, stratigraphy, paleontology and petrology, just to name a few. This web site has divided the field into Rocks and Minerals, Meteorology (weather), Solar Energy and Wind Energy. These comprise the fundamental basic concepts of Earth Sciences and their importance in today’s global ecosystem.
Rocks and minerals comprised the basic unit of Earth composition. Rocks are composed of various mineral types. Different rocks have different mineral content. The study of this is called petrology. The study of mineral atomic structure and composition is termed crystallography.
Meteorology is basically the study of weather. Weather is an important Earth phenomenon studied for it’s importance in climate and how it impacts us in everyday life. Weather stations routinely record temporal changes in temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed precipitation and cloud formation.
Radiant light and heat from the Sun can be harnessed to create solar energy or power. There are several methods being developed and used today, including photovoltaic’s and thermal heating. This is accomplished by use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors. New solar technologies are being aggressively sought as solar energy replaces fossil fuels in the production of electricity.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. This and solar energy are termed alternative energy resources. The development and deployment of these technologies on a mass scale are hoped to replaced the need for fossil fuels.